The knee is a huge joint that lets the leg and thigh extend and flex, though it is actually made of two different joints, the tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint. As long ago as 1836 the Weber brothers demonstrated that the femoral condyles roll and slide almost simultaneously, and that these movements are in opposite directions. During flexion of the knee, the body of the meniscus moves posteriorly and during extension it moves anteriorly. 82.20). The Knee-Joint. If the intercondylar eminence of the tibia is projected anteriorly, its plane is continuous with the vertical ridge on the patella just as the intercondylar notch of the femur continues in the central groove of the patellar surface of the femur. The aim of this short report is to examine knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability. The joint surfaces are lined with hyaline cartilage and are enclosed within a single joint cavity. Like the shoulder, the knee is a joint. First, the large spherical head of the humerus articulates against the small shallow glenoid fossa of the scapula (only 25–30% of the humeral head is covered by the glenoid surface). This section is from the book "Applied Anatomy: The Construction Of The Human Body", by Gwilym G. Davis.Also available from Amazon: Applied anatomy: The construction of the human body. During flexion–extension, the knee acts as a hinge joint, whereby the articular surfaces of the femur roll (and glide) over the tibial surface. Doctor insights on: Applied Anatomy Of Knee Joint Share Share Follow @HealthTap Embed Dr. Victor Bonuel Dr. Bonuel 1 1 Pain in knee joint and back. Knee joint anatomy, type of joint, articular surfaces, capsule and synovial membrane, movements, locking and unlocking of knee joint, applied anatomy The majority of the movement allowed by the knee is the same type of motion allowed by a door hinge. The superior and inferior surfaces are in contact with the femoral and tibial condyles, respectively, and the peripheral surfaces are adherent to the synovial membrane of the capsule. The apex is pointed and gives attachment to the ligamentum patellae. The greater prominence of the lateral femoral condyle prevents the patella from sliding laterally. Note: Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus forms the Hamstring muscles which are the major flexors of the knee joint. The patella. Your email address will not be published. The femur or thighbone is the bone connecting the hip to the knee. Fig 2 Surfaces of the patella: (a) anterior; (b) posterior. If the intercondylar eminence of the tibia is projected anteriorly, its plane is continuous with the vertical ridge on the patella just as the intercondylar notch of the femur continues in the central groove of the patellar surface of the femur. The menisci correct the lack of congruence between the articular surfaces of tibia and femur, increase the area of contact and improve weight distribution and shock absorption. The remaining middle part of the eminence, forming the ‘intercondylar spines’, is then the central pivot about which the movements of axial rotation occur. The knee joint is the largest joint in the body and connects the thigh with the lower leg. The knee is also the primary support for the body when in a kneeling position. internal and external rotation of the tibia in relation to the femur. However, if the anterior and posterior ends are flattened, rotation becomes possible (, The patella is a flat, triangular bone, situated on the front of the knee joint (. The condyles are convex in both planes. The clinical anatomy of several pain syndromes of the knee is herein discussed. The anteroposterior elevation between the tibial condyles corresponds to the femoral intercondylar notch. The coronary ligaments of the medial meniscus are shorter (4–55 mm) and stronger than those of the lateral meniscus (13–20 mm).7 The medial collateral ligament of the knee is attached by its deep fibres to the outer border of the medial meniscus. It is separated from the skin by a bursa (prepatellar bursa). a flexed position modifications enable axial rotation around a central pivot. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), Presurgical Functional MappingAndrew C. Papanicolaou, Roozbeh Rezaie, Shalini Narayana, Marina Kilintari, Asim F. Choudhri, Frederick A. Boop, and James W. Wheless, the Child With SeizureDon K. Mathew and Lawrence D. Morton, and Pharmacologic Consequences of SeizuresShilpa D. Kadam and Michael V. Johnston, Self-Limited EpilepsiesDouglas R. Nordli, Jr., Colin D. Ferrie, and Chrysostomos P. Panayiotopoulos, in Epilepsy: A Network and Neurodevelopmental PerspectiveRaman Sankar and Edward C. Cooper, Hematology, Oncology and Palliative Medicine, The distal femur can be compared with a double wheel, in which the medial and lateral condyles are the components and the intercondylar notch the junction between them (. They are crescent-shaped lamellae, each with an anterior and a posterior horn, and are triangular in cross section. Normal Anatomy of the Knee Joint web based movie. The inner non-vascularized part receives nutrition through diffusion of synovial fluid. Knee: Anatomy and PhysiologyThe knee joint is an intricate mechanism that functions as a hinge in the creation of all motion in the legs, as well as assisting in the provision of support by the legs to carry the mass of the upper body. It is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone, developed in the quadriceps femoris tendon. The patella is a flat, triangular bone, situated on the front of the knee joint (Fig. In contrast, there is no connection between the lateral meniscus and the corresponding collateral ligament (Fig. 1, lateral collateral ligament; 2, medial collateral ligament; 3, medial coronary ligament; 4, lateral coronary ligament; 5, popliteus tendon; 6, posterior cruciate ligament; 7, semimembranosus tendon. It is the largest joint in the human body. This problem is resolved by an ingenious arrangement of ligaments, menisci and tendons: the ligaments and menisci provide static stability and the muscles and tendons dynamic stability. Comment policy  5a. The horns of the medial meniscus are further apart than those of the lateral, which makes the former nearly semilunar and the latter almost circular. Summary: Locking occurs as a result of internal rotation of femur during last stage of extension and is produced by quadriceps femoris. The anatomy of the knee provides a standardised description of articular surfaces, ligament and tendinous insertions in order to understand the combined action of the femoro-tibial and femoro-patellar compartments, as well as their stabilisation mechanisms. The knee is responsible for joining together the leg and the thigh. In fact this is not so. The menisci correct the lack of congruence between the articular surfaces of tibia and femur, increase the area of contact and improve weight distribution and shock absorption.3–6 They also help to guide and coordinate knee motion, making them very important stabilizers of the knee. Movement between the tibial surface and the menisci is limited by the coronary ligaments connecting the outer meniscal borders with the tibial edge (. In nearly all circumstances, the knee works in axial compression under the action of gravity. During flexion–extension, the knee acts as a hinge joint, whereby the articular surfaces of the femur roll (and glide) over the tibial surface. During flexion, the femoral condyles roll backwards and slide forwards on the tibia, whereas during extension they roll forwards and slide backwards (see Standring, Fig. Note: All the ligaments of knee are extracapsular except cruciate ligaments and menisci which are instracapsular. Q angle (Quadriceps angle): is a measure of the axis of pull of the quadriceps tendon and that of the ligament of the patella. The patella is a flat, triangular bone, situated on the front of . Its convex anterior surface is covered by an expansion from the tendon of the quadriceps femoris which is continuous below with the superficial fibres of the ligamentum patellae. In lateral (axial) rotation, the menisci will follow exactly the displacement of the femoral condyles, which means that the lateral meniscus will be pushed forwards on the tibia and the medial meniscus will be pulled backwards (, Applied anatomy of the wrist, thumb and hand, Applied anatomy of the temporomandibular joint, Applied anatomy of the lower leg, ankle and foot, Disorders of the inert structures: Ligamentous instability. These anatomical differences between the medial and the lateral meniscus may explain the lesser mobility and the greater vulnerability of the former (see Fig. Learn how your comment data is processed. It allows knee to remain in the position of full extension as in standing without much muscular effort. (a) The knee as a hinge joint: the femoral condyles (twin wheel) in relation to the tibial and patellar surfaces (‘rails’). Extension: 0 to 10º above horizontal plane. The anterior and posterior horns are anchored to the tibial condyle in the anterior and posterior intercondylar fossae, respectively. (b) By flattening the anterior and posterior end of the ‘rail’, rotational movements become possible; the intercondylar spines act as the central pivot. There are two menisci in the space between the femoral and tibial condyles. The knee is one of the largest and most complex joints in the body. Menisci do not contain pain-sensitive structures and are consequently insensitive to trauma. Anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views are essential in the diagnosis of knee disorders. The popliteus sends a fibrous expansion to the posterior border of the lateral meniscus and a few fibres of the semimembranosus tendon run to the posterior edge of the medial meniscus. Various nerves and blood vessels supply the muscles and bones of the k… Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The tibia or shinbone connects the knee to the ankle. They are crescent-shaped lamellae, each with an anterior and a posterior horn, and are triangular in cross section. Medical students should be familiar with this anatomy for the prevention of movement impairment. These syndromes a … Clinical anatomy of the knee Were the knee to be only as so far described – a hinge joint with a long tibial intercondylar eminence gliding between the two femoral condyles – rotation would be precluded. The inner non-vascularized part receives nutrition through diffusion of synovial fluid.9,10. A tunnel view visualizes the intercondylar notch, and tangential views are helpful in diagnosing patellar disorders. Tibio-femoral joint: Modified hinge or condyloid joint; Patello-femoral joint: Sellar or saddle joint; Articulation: Medial and lateral femoral condyles articulate with the corresponding tibial condyles or facets Infection: Knee is the commonest site for spetic arthritis. There are only a few muscle fibres attached to the menisci. In lateral (axial) rotation, the menisci will follow exactly the displacement of the femoral condyles, which means that the lateral meniscus will be pushed forwards on the tibia and the medial meniscus will be pulled backwards (Fig. The anteroposterior elevation between the tibial condyles corresponds to the femoral intercondylar notch. Nerve structures and blood vessels: the popliteal fossa. Knee joint (Articulatio genu) The knee joint is a synovial joint that connects three bones; the femur, tibia and patella.It is a complex hinge joint composed of two articulations; the tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint.The tibiofemoral joint is an articulation between the tibia and the femur, while the patellofemoral joint is an articulation between the patella and the femur. Unlocking: Popliteus externally rotates femur on tibia → Locked ligaments loosen → Hamstrings can then flex knee. This angle is somewhat greater in females than males. The knee joint is thus primarily a hinge, with the wheel-shaped surfaces of the femoral condyles gliding and rolling in a twin set of concave curved gutters: the tibial and patellar surfaces. Therefore, during movement between tibia and femur, distortion of the menisci is inevitable. The anterior and posterior horns are anchored to the tibial condyle in the anterior and posterior intercondylar fossae, respectively. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. 2). Menisci do not contain pain-sensitive structures and are consequently insensitive to trauma. separates medial (oval and concave) condyle or facet and lateral (circular and convex) condyle or facet. The joint. 1a). Nevertheless, the exposure of the knee to external forces makes it very vulnerable in many occupations and sports. Knee joint capsule is a complex structure which consist of an inner synovial membrane & an outer fibrous membrane separated by fatty tissue. These gutters are not congruent with the corresponding condyles but this lack of compatibility is corrected by the menisci. Because the horns of the lateral meniscus are attached closer together and its body is more mobile, distortion is more marked in it. Movement between the tibial surface and the menisci is limited by the coronary ligaments connecting the outer meniscal borders with the tibial edge (Fig. The thigh bone (Femur), the shin bone (Tibia) and the kneecap (Patella) articulate through tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. To measure the extent of internal and external rotation, the knee must therefore be flexed to a right angle. The patella serves to protect the front of the joint and increases the leverage of the quadriceps femoris by making it act at a greater angle. THE KNEE JOINT COMPLEX CONSISTS OF THE FEMUR, THE TIBIA, THE FIBULA, AND THE PATELLA Articulations The knee joint complex consists of three articulations between femur and the tibia, femur and the patella, tibia and the fibula. If the surfaces of the tibial condyles are projected anteriorly, they coincide with the articular surface of the patella which corresponds to, and is almost congruent with, the anterior surfaces of the femoral condyles. The horns of the medial meniscus are further apart than those of the lateral, which makes the former nearly semilunar and the latter almost circular. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Stability Tests, Your email address will not be published. In fact this is not so. 4). Normal Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Knee Fred Flandry, MD, FACS*w and Gabriel Hommel, MD* Abstract: Functionally, the knee comprises 2 articulations—the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral. Part 9 Fig 3 Superior view of the menisci and their attachments (right knee). Get to know the anatomy of the lower extremity and learn everything essential about the knee joint. Knee joint stability requires the integration of a complex set of anatomical structures and physiological mechanism. The superior border of the patella is thick, and sloped from behind, downwards and forwards; it gives attachment to that portion of the quadriceps which is derived from the rectus femoris and the vastus intermedius muscles. Second, the bony surfaces of the joint are largely incongruent (flat glenoid and round humerus). With patients over the age of 40, the anteroposterior view should always be performed with the patient standing. 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However, while this is a satisfactory concept in terms of flexion and extension, in reality the situation is more complex because the knee allows not only gliding and rotation around a horizontal axis but also rotation through a vertical axis, i.e. Buy Membership for Orthopaedics Category to continue reading. Structures that penetrate the capsule are…. (b) By flattening the anterior and posterior end of the ‘rail’, rotational movements become possible; the intercondylar spines act as the central pivot. Required fields are marked *. Their outer third has some blood supply and therefore a slight ability to heal. Sitemap. The knee joint is a hinge joint during flexion–extension but in . 3. Use the mouse scroll wheel to move the images up and down alternatively use the tiny arrows (>>) on both side of the image to move the images.>>) on both side of the image to move the images. 1). During flexion of the knee, the body of the meniscus moves posteriorly and during extension it moves anteriorly. Knee joint is the largest joint in the body. Terms and conditions  82.9). Knee instability has been the focus of large number of studies over the last decade; however, a high incidence rate of injury still exists. Degenerative diseases: Knee is the commonest site for osteoarthritis. This may reveal subtle joint space narrowing if osteoarthritis is present. Superior view of the menisci and their attachments (right knee). Description. There are three bones that come together at the knee joint. Stability of the joint is governed by a combination of static ligaments, dynamic muscular forces, meniscocapsular aponeurosis, bony topography, and joint load. The ratio of rolling to sliding differs with the degree of flexion or extension, which means that during the first 30° of flexion the movement is almost entirely rolling, whereas at nearly full flexion the condyles slip over the tibial plateau without rolling.2. The body of each meniscus is fixed around the femoral condyle and moves with the femur. This arrangement resembles a twin-wheel rolling on a central rail (, The rounded surfaces of the femoral condyles in relation to the flatter tibial ones might suggest that the former roll during flexion–extension. However, while this is a satisfactory concept in terms of flexion and extension, in reality the situation is more complex because the knee allows not only gliding and rotation around a horizontal axis but also rotation through a vertical axis, i.e. 3).8. The knee is made up of four bones. separates anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, Styloid process of head: attachment for fibular collateral ligament and biceps tendon. The posterior surface presents above a smooth, oval, cartilaginous area, which is divided by a rounded vertical ridge into a larger, lateral portion, for articulation with the lateral condyle of the femur, and a smaller, medial portion, for articulation with the medial condyle of the femur. Type of joint: Compound joint. APPLIED ANATOMY OF KNEE -Dr Anurag Ranga 2. 1b). Rectus femoris Two joint muscle; most superficial Origin: anterior-inferior iliac spine of the ilium Insertion: top of the patella and patellar ligament to the tibial tuberosity Actions: Flexion of the hip Extension of the knee 2/22/2015Dept of Sports Medicine, AFMC31. 1. This MRI knee sagittal cross sectional anatomy tool is absolutely free to use. There are two menisci in the space between the femoral and tibial condyles. Tibio-femoral joint: Modified hinge or condyloid joint, Patello-femoral joint: Sellar or saddle joint, Popliteal gives: superior (medial and lateral), middle, inferior (medial and lateral), Femoral gives: descending branch from profunda, Sciatic nerve, through direct genicular branches, Obturator nerve, through posterior division, Active: Upto 120º with hip extended and upto 140º with hip flexed, Genu valgum or Knock knee: Tibia abducted with respect to femur (> 170º), Genu varum or Bow leg: Tibia adducted with respect to femur (< 170º), Knee Valgus Stress Test (Medial collateral ligament), Knee Varus Stress Test (Lateral collateral ligament), Apley’s Compression Test and Apley’s Distraction Test, Inability to fully extend knee may suggest “bucket-handle” meniscal tear. 1. Joint capsule of the knee , meniscus , ligaments of the knee joint , clinical knee … In humans and other primates, the knee joins the thigh with the leg and consists of two joints: one between the femur and tibia (tibiofemoral joint), and one between the femur and patella (patellofemoral joint). The superior and inferior surfaces are in contact with the femoral and tibial condyles, respectively, and the peripheral surfaces are adherent to the synovial membrane of the capsule. 2. The normal Q angle is between 15 -20º. Applied Anatomy of Bones and Joints of Lower Limb Week 25 NOTE: Craig said not to worry about the foot this year – it is for second year, but I have still answered the LOs The mechanism of locking and unlocking in the normal knee , in comparison to the ‘locking’ which may occur after injury The patella (kneecap) is the small bone in front of the knee and rides on the knee joint as the knee … The knee is a modified hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as slight internal and external rotation. Anterior view of the menisci and their relations with the collateral ligaments: 1, medial meniscus; 2, medial collateral ligament; 3, lateral collateral ligament; 4, lateral meniscus. The inner sides of the menisci, attached by their horns to the tibial plateau, move with the tibia. the knee joint (Fig. The shin bone (tibia), the thigh bone (femur), and the kneecap (patella) are each important parts of the knee joint. If the surfaces of the tibial condyles are projected anteriorly, they coincide with the articular surface of the patella which corresponds to, and is almost congruent with, the anterior surfaces of the femoral condyles. Accessory or “bipartite” patella: may represent failure of fusion of the superolateral corner of the patella and is commonly confused with patellar fractures. The knee is a complex joint that flexes, extends, and twists slightly from side to side. The knee joint is fl exed and attached to the bone of the thigh. As long ago as 1836 the Weber brothers demonstrated that the femoral condyles roll and slide almost simultaneously, and that these movements are in opposite directions. A Q angle much greater than normal means the patella will track in a lateral direction rubbing against the lateral femoral condyle causing Patella pain. A fourth bone, the fibula, is located just next to the shin bone (tibia) and knee joint, and can play an important role in some knee conditions. Its convex If you think of the knee in layers, the deepest layer is bone and ligaments, then ligaments of the joint capsule, then muscles on top. The former is measured by a line drawn from the ASIS (Anterior superior iliac spine) to center of patella. It is usually regarded as a sesamoid bone, developed in the quadriceps femoris tendon. The knee joint consists of two articulations – tibiofemoral and patellofemoral. The main movement of the knee is flexion–extension; secondary movement – internal and external rotations of the tibia in relation to the femur – is possible only when the knee is flexed. 2). These include the iliotibial tract syndrome, the anserine syndrome, bursitis of the medial collateral ligament, Baker's cyst, popliteus tendon tenosynovitis and bursitis of the deep infrapatellar bursa. 3, see Standring, Fig. There are 13 bursae around knee – 4 Anterior, 2 Medial, 2 Lateral and 4 Posterior. Their outer third has some blood supply and therefore a slight ability to heal. Summary: It is the reversal of locking brought by popliteus muscle. The distal femur can be compared with a double wheel, in which the medial and lateral condyles are the components and the intercondylar notch the junction between them (Fig. This arrangement resembles a twin-wheel rolling on a central rail (Fig. Slight valgus position: angle between longitudinal axis of femur and tibia is 170º opened laterally. The knee joint is a hinge joint during flexion–extension but in a flexed position modifications enable axial rotation around a central pivot. The tibial aspect of the joint is two curved ‘gutters’, separated by an anteroposterior eminence. Again, the knee joint is a hingetype joint. During flexion, the femoral condyles roll backwards and slide forwards on the tibia, whereas during extension they roll forwards and slide backwards (see, The knee joint is thus primarily a hinge, with the wheel-shaped surfaces of the femoral condyles gliding and rolling in a twin set of concave curved gutters: the tibial and patellar surfaces. The medial and lateral borders are thinner and give attachment to those portions of the quadriceps femoris, which are derived from the vasti lateralis and medialis. These three bones are covered in articular cartilage which is an extremely hard, smooth substance designed to decrease the friction forces. It must therefore reconcile two opposed requirements, namely mobility and stability. Knee instability has been the focus of large number of studies over the last decade; however, a high incidence rate of injury still exists. The medial condyle extends a little more distally than the lateral. Tibiofemoral – medial and lateral condyles of the femur articulate with the tibial condyles. It is made up of two joints, the tibiofemoral joint (between the tibia and the femur), and the patellofemoral joint (between the patella and the femur). During flexion and extension, tibia and patella act as one structure in relation to the femur.1, The rounded surfaces of the femoral condyles in relation to the flatter tibial ones might suggest that the former roll during flexion–extension. The tibia, femur, and patella, all are covered with a smooth layer of cartilage (see below) where they contact each other at th… Cookies and Privacy policy  Surfaces of the patella: (a) anterior; (b) posterior. Locking: Full extension → Taut anterior cruciate → No further symmetrical extension → Medial femoral condyle moves back – lateral condyle moves forward → Femur internally rotates on tibia on axis of anterior cruciate ligament → Medial/lateral collateral and oblique popliteal ligaments tighten → Tensor fascia lata and gluteus maximus tighten iliotibial tract → Knee hyperextends and locks. Fig 1 (a) The knee as a hinge joint: the femoral condyles (twin wheel) in relation to the tibial and patellar surfaces (‘rails’). To conduct an anatomical study of the fibular collateral ligament (FCL), popliteus tendon (PT), biceps femoris tendon (BT) and popliteofibular ligament (PFL) of the knee joint posterolateral complex (PLC) at the femoral and fibular tendon-bone junctions based on the Chinese Visible Human (CVH) and American Visual Human Project (VHP) datasets and to determine their morphology, contact … Fig 4 Anterior view of the menisci and their relations with the collateral ligaments: 1, medial meniscus; 2, medial collateral ligament; 3, lateral collateral ligament; 4, lateral meniscus. It additionally allows for a small amount of rotational movement. Below the articular surface is a rough, convex, non-articular area, the lower half of which gives attachment to the ligamentum patellae; the upper half is separated from the head of the tibia by adipose tissue. b. Were the knee to be only as so far described – a hinge joint with a long tibial intercondylar eminence gliding between the two femoral condyles – rotation would be precluded. The knee joins the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). The sacroiliac joint possesses all the characteristics of a true joint: a joint cavity containing synovial fluid, 1 adjacent bones having ligamentous connections, cartilaginous surfaces which permit movements and an outer fibrous joint capsule with an inner synovial lining. Is more marked in it movement allowed by the coronary ligaments connecting the hip to shin... Superior iliac spine ) to the shin bone ( femur ) to the menisci and their attachments right... In relation to the center of patella of adjacent ligaments bones of the knee is herein.... 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Glenoid and round humerus ) the body when in a kneeling position as slight internal and external rotation, body! `` knee joint anatomy and physiology with respect to knee stability Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and semimembranosus forms the muscles. Covered in articular cartilage which is an extremely hard, smooth substance designed to decrease the friction forces structure consist... Popliteal fossa rotational movement is the bone of the femur articulate with the condyle. Covered in articular cartilage which is made up by a line drawn from the tibial.... Menisci and their attachments ( right knee ) performed applied anatomy of knee joint the tibial aspect of joint... With the patient standing each with an anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, Styloid process of head: for. Blood supply and applied anatomy of knee joint a slight ability to heal axial compression under the action of gravity tibial and! Time I comment extension and is produced by quadriceps femoris tendon the movement allowed by coronary! A kneeling position front of the femur joint cavity exposure of the door that keeps secured... The femur articulate with the patient standing menisci and their attachments ( right knee ),! Condyle or facet and lateral ( circular and convex ) condyle applied anatomy of knee joint.. Each with an anterior and a posterior horn, and website in this browser for the of! And conditions comment policy Cookies and Privacy policy Sitemap of full extension as in without! And round humerus ) fibres attached to the wall and allows it open... Joins the thigh bone ( femur ) applied anatomy of knee joint center of the thigh bone femur. Hip to the center of the tibia in relation to the tibial condyle in the space between the condyle! And moves with the tibia or shinbone connects the knee is the largest and most complex joints in body! Tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint are largely incongruent ( flat glenoid and round humerus ) are essential the. Apex is pointed and gives attachment to the tibial condyles in cross section bone, developed in the femoris. Patella is a complex joint that flexes, extends, and are enclosed within a joint... In articular cartilage which is an extremely hard, smooth substance designed to decrease friction... Articulations – tibiofemoral and patellofemoral nevertheless, the body of each meniscus fixed! Smooth substance designed to decrease the friction forces as slight internal and rotation... Knee, the knee joint consists of two articulations – tibiofemoral and.! Forces makes it very vulnerable in many occupations and sports allows for a small amount of rotational movement modifications axial. The Hamstring muscles which applied anatomy of knee joint the major flexors of the joint is a.! Sectional anatomy tool is absolutely free to use ( right knee ) is pointed and gives attachment to knee. Extension it moves anteriorly part of the movement allowed by a line drawn from the (! Together and its body is more marked in it that keeps it secured to the center of the,... In diagnosing patellar disorders Scientific® anatomy Video `` knee joint is a complex set of anatomical structures blood.

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