Research paper indicates the relationship between forest management and the livelihood of locals of KPK. The impacts of deforestation Reduced air quality. It is shown in the paper that the cash needs of local communities is not dependent on natural resources like forests but rather non-cash needs are dependent on forest like use of wood in day to day needs such as cooking, constructions etc. The conventional view of deforestation is that rural people overexploits forests for local consumptive use and also the timber and woods traders using all possible ways to smuggle woods. 2. When I left CIFOR in 2006, POLEX was being distributed in English, Spanish, French, and Japanese to about 17,000 governments officials, donors, academics, corporate officials, practitioners, activists, and students. We need clean and plentiful water to survive. 1950 people of the population of the valley which depends on the forest for energy necessities, cooking purposes, and heating. The rate of forest loss has declined in the past decade. At least ten people attended the workshop who was representative of the different villages near Basho valley. POLEX promoted both research by CIFOR scientists and by others. Deforestation also drives climate change. Addressing deforestation is not possible without addressing EU demand. For quantitative data survey were conducted with a questionnaire. But the hypothesis of the researchers stood wrongs and they debated further that poverty has no link with deforestation. Pakistan is blessed by many things; forests are one of them, which cover 4.224 million Hectare (ha) which is 4.8% of the total land area (Wildlife of Pakistan). As by local elders the contractors took wood around ten times more than the quota which was allocated to them officially for the construction of government buildings. While it is easy to understand the driving causes of deforestation, it can be harder to recognize and explain the impacts. Further effects of deforestation include soil erosion and coastal flooding. Interviews with different people of local community show how forest management is difficult for locals. Author: Created by gy07lc. However, deforestation also alters the water and energy cycles (biogeophysical effects), which can cause a local warming or cooling depending on the region. Defunding Deforestation . Topics: Deforestation. 400 households were selected in both districts. The other method used is remote sensing techniques using aerial photograph and satellite images. Between 1981 and 1990, there had been a 4.3% decrease in forest areas of the Tropical Asia and Oceania, which Pakistan is a part of. Many popular items of food on sale in the Western World originated in the rainforest, bananas, oranges, tomatoes, potatoes, … As the poor community has no approach to energy resources like Oil and Gas, so they depend upon wood and timber more than other classes of the country, which results to deforestation. These fieldworks were also consisted of survey of price, natural resource and village profiles. The theory of huge deforestation due to fast population growth and local use; the study did not support this theory. These are the reasons which are involved in deforestation in KPK. The next data were selected in 1990 with 2 decades gap in which few important changes took place. Some 250 million people living in forest and savannah areas depend on … Forests in Pakistan cover a total area of 2.4%, and deforestation rate in Pakistan 1.68%. There’s simply no way we can fight the climate crisis if we don’t stop deforestation. The last data was taken out in 2007 which was last available data. The demand of people of consumption of wood is increasing, according to bureau of statistics; the consumption of wood in 1993 was 29.5 million cubic meters where as in the year 2010 it was around 50 million cubic meters. No plagiarism, guaranteed! Long term effects are then felt when they don’t replant new trees so as to replace the ones they use. To avoid deforestation in KPK, government must give priority to the needs of locals which are dependent on forest such availability of resources like Oil and Gas, economical benefits etc. Sources must be cited in APA format. Deforestation in the rainforest disrupts several natural cycles. The impacts of deforestation. In this study District Swat is taken as a subject matter which is a part of the high altitude Hindu Kush Himalaya region of Pakistan comprising a diverse set of biophysical, ecological and socio-economic characteristics. The work that Arild Angelsen and I did on economic models of the causes of deforestation and on how increased agricultural productivity affects deforestation rates have been very widely cited by subsequent researchers working on those topics. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the land available for other uses. In Kalam, forest area is decreased by 30.5%; with 11.4% of the deforestation caused by agricultural expansion. The forest land in converting into agriculture land and also uses for developmental reasons like roads, infrastructure and construction etc. This is no ordinary fire. This is called the enhanced greenhouse effect and causes climate change. This results to polluting of environment. The forest department is very much involved in deforestation as they support all the illegal commercial harvesting on a large scale. The purpose of this assignment is to describe and explain the negative impacts Deforestation currently has on our ecosystem. Loss of biodiversity. Reference this. 200 were from each district in which 100 from project villages and 100 from non project villages. Many birds, insects, reptiles and animals rely upon trees for food or shelter. The emission of total carbon is estimated by applying the basic methodology. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? This study examines the effects of economic, institutional and social capital variables on deforestation across 117 countries. Social impacts of deforestation: (4) Click card to see definition . Jobs and deforestation. It is concluded that the claim of Pakistani officials of increasing in forest is wrong but rather decreasing rapidly which is alarming. It is a main reason of Global Warming. From these cases, as well as from others, it is clear that ecological and social issues are intertwined in complex ways. In the long term, the lack of healthy, nutritious soil … Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Deforestation brings many effects either to society or country. According to Pakistani officials the forest are increasing due to deforestation and environmental awareness. Many think of habitat as just a shelter but it also deals with food, water and a place to nurse their offspring. The Amazon region had severe droughts in 2005, 2010 and 2015-2016. Habitat is an environment where plants and animals grow and live. As like this several interviews were conducted there in valley from local jeep owners who transport woods to the people, from the local volunteers and 16 stakeholders in which two were women and 14 were men. The interview has also taken by the officers of the Basho development organization. Pakistan has an average population of 170 million and average growth in population is 2.4%. Harvesting, forest fires, and insect infestations do not count as deforestation because the affected areas will eventually grow back. CIFOR research has made valuable contributions to understanding the drivers of deforestation. The area where this research has been conducted is Basho valley which is located in Batistan region in the northern areas of Pakistan. Global Perspectives on Sustainable Forest Management, 2012. Locals of Swat valley depend on the forests for daily life use and are also a main source of income for them. The results do not provide direct support for the EKC notion. Greenhouse gas... Water pollution. Looking ahead, David Kaimowitz identifies a new research challenge: understanding how changes in forest cover influence climate through pathways that are unrelated to carbon emissions or carbon sinks. Changes in Soil: Loss of nutrients in the soil that are derived from breakdown of tree leaves. David Kaimowitz worked at CIFOR from October 1995 through to July 2006 - for a total of almost 11 years. Effects of Deforestation. The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. The EU is a large driver of illegal deforestation : in 2012, the EU imported €6 billion of soy, beef, leather and palm oil which came from land illegally cleared of tropical forest. Loss of Habitat. Jaguars, sloths, bonobos, and orangutans are just some of the better-known animals threatened by deforestation. This resource relates to the AQA specification for GCSE (UK) exams from 2018 onwards. Deforestation in Indonesia for palm oil (and illegal logging) is so rapid that a 2007 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report said that most of the country's forest might be destroyed by 2022. The other perspective on net benefits takes into account the cost of externalities to calculate social or public benefits and costs. Annual deforestation rates observed were 1.86% in scrub forest zone, 1.28% in agro-forest zone and 0.80% in pine forest zone in Swat. Major effects of deforestation include, the loss of habitats and species, [...] Pages: 2 Words: 621. The contractors then sell out the woods in Skardu market to earn or they build their own shops and houses. CIFOR advances human well-being, equity and environmental integrity by conducting innovative research, developing partners’ capacity, and actively engaging in dialogue with all stakeholders to inform policies and practices that affect forests and people. Out of these 4604 ha area is covered by forests in Khyber-pakhun-khwa (KPK) and Northern areas. Gasses emission from human body and brick making in big cities s higher that fresh environment due to forests. Deforestation causes significant economic and social/human costs and this is now one of the most critical environmental issues of the age. Such dependency and also historical and institutional evolution clearly describe the rights of locals on these resources. You can view samples of our professional work here. The causes of deforestation are logging, agriculture croplands and pasture expansion, urbanization and more (Ebenezer 2015). The area where this research has done is district Swat. Nicaragua's frontier: the Bosawas biosphere reserve, Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation, Economic models of tropical deforestation: a review, Rethinking the causes of deforestation: lessons from economic models, Reshaping the terrain: Landscape restoration in Tanzania, Recent trends of forest cover change and ecosystem services in eastern upland region of Bangladesh, Parks protect forest cover in a tropical biodiversity hotspot, but high human population densities can limit success, Climate change, energy and low-carbon development, Equal opportunities, gender, justice and tenure, The Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP), Community-Based Fire Prevention and Peatland Restoration, Economic Models of Tropical Deforestation: A Review, Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models, Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation, REDD+ research maps complex path to protect forests, people and climate, Best of Landscape News 2020: Forests and Restoration. In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. Together, our researchers are working in more than 50 countries. Eight villages were selected randomly which consist of four from each districts in which two were project villages and two were non project villages. This was done by multiplying the quantity of biomass burnt (t dm) by the fraction of biomass oxidized and the biomass carbon content (t C/t dm) (IPCC,1994). The consequences of deforestation are both environmental and social, and both local and global. Government should focus on people at macro level and should work on microcredit and infrastructure development before the implementation of macro projects. Finding solutions to … big challenges - and many smaller ones - requires research. 2617 words (10 pages) Essay. Habitat is very important and must be considered in this issue. In Malamjaba, forests decreased by 49.7% over the last 40 years. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! The first is the water cycle. Deforestation affects the people and animals where trees are cut, as well as the wider world. Dr. Kaimowitz was Director General of CIFOR from 2001 to 2006. The post Social impact of technology – deforestation essay appeared first on EssayBishop. These may include macro-economic shifts, military conflicts, technological changes in agriculture, decentralization, road construction, and various other things … In addition to their previously mentioned roles, trees also function to retain water and topsoil, which provides the rich nutrients to sustain additional forest life. Over 80 percent of the population in KPK is below the poverty level, which consumes available natural resources for their survival, which results to deforestation. These conditions have resulted in the expulsion of poor peasants to the Amazon forest frontier areas. When in 20thcentury, Swat was merged into Pakistan in 1969; forests were ignored due to poor managerial and the policies of Pakistan. Bala, Caldeira, Wickett, Phillips, Lobell, Delire, & Mirin, (2006) mentioned that deforestation impacts the global weather both by liberating the carbon stored in the living plants and soils, and by altering the physical properties of the planetary surface (p. 6550). Around 70% of the world’s land animals and plants live in forests. Deforestation in the rainforest means individual species will become endangered and biodiversity is reduced. In the Barikot region, forest cover area decreased to 9.5% in 2007, whereas the built up areas increased by 161.4%, and agricultural land expanded by 129.9% consuming 18.96% of forest area in 2007. Another effects of deforestation are climate change. How can deforestation lead to an improved quality of life? Jalan CIFOR Situ Gede, Researcher has found out these results for helping others for study in same field. Deforestation, clearing or thinning of forests by humans to make the land available for other uses. Our headquarters are in Bogor, Indonesia, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya; Yaounde, Cameroon; Lima, Peru; and Bonn, Germany. Deforestation is the "permanent removal of standing forests," as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines it. But when deforestation occurs, water absorption is disturbed. Many think of habitat as just a shelter but it also deals with food, water and a place to nurse their offspring. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to utilize the land or trees. If there were to be a law placed on the ban of deforestation then all of the employees will lose their job. However, these private benefits and costs do not include adverse environmental effects, termed “environmental externalities,” that result from deforestation (e.g., see Table 5.2). When forced to cope with deforestation and loss of habitat many of these organisms do not survive. Created: Sep 12, 2017 | Updated: Jun 5, 2019. Global warming is assessed to be increasing rapidly due to high rate of greenhouse gasses emission. impacts negatively on human health wit h serious . Une déforestation excessive autour de la capitale Malaisienne de Kuala Lumpur, combinéed aux conditions sèches crées par el Niño, provoquèrent un rationnemment d'eau strict en 1998, et pour la première fois la ville dû importer de l'eau. Nigel Sizer, Director of the Global Forest Initiative at the World Resource Institute, sits down with Phillip Yin to discuss the environmental cost of deforestation. Information of household was collected by 403 households. It is further argued, that locals cannot be motivated for forest management before giving them economical benefits. Trees filter the planet’s air – they take carbon dioxide and turn it into oxygen. VAT Registration No: 842417633. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. So here we saw two examples of the social effects of deforestation: a loss of major ecosystem services, including a buffer against climate change and protection from flooding; and increased infection of Chagas disease. It is required for Pakistan to look after the managerial skills of forestry department and prevent them for colluding with ‘Forest Mafias’. In each division 10 brick units were randomly selected and surveyed and this was questionnaire based. They say, people living on mountains are completely dependent on forest for survival as they have no other ways available, unlike people living on lowland like Punjab. It was a useful way to make people in the forestry community aware of recent policy-relevant research about forests. We will briefly touch on some of the policy options open to addressing the challenging current rates of deforestation and mention the work of the Economics Nobel-Winning economist, the late Elinor Ostrom. Once trees are felled, evapotranspiration reduces, as does the return of moisture to the atmosphere. In effect, we estimate a net reduction in deforestation through this procedure. Instead, FAO and CIFOR say that deforestation does have a role in small floods and topsoil erosion by eliminating the buffering and soil-anchoring effects of forests. David Kaimowitz, a former Director General of CIFOR, explains that social, economic, and political changes affect tropical deforestation. 4) Conflict. The quality of life for some local people improves as there are more jobs. All work is written to order. Locals must be employed on the conservation of forest and incentives should be given to them. Habitat is an environment where plants and animals grow and live. This paper examines the trend of increased colonization of tropical rainforest regions and the resulting effects on long term natural system productivity in these areas. CIFOR advances human well-being, equity and environmental integrity by conducting innovative research, developing partners’ capacity, and actively engaging in dialogue with all stakeholders to inform policies and practices that affect forests and people. During this period of time he meet with the officers of forest department, he also get interacted with the forest contractors and few people of the valley which includes men and women. David Kaimowitz, a former Director General of CIFOR, explains that social, economic, and political changes affect tropical deforestation. Deforestation releases CO2 to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. This study has highlighted the historical, empirical and institutional aspects of deforestation. We conduct innovative research, strengthen partners’ capacity and actively engage in dialogue with all stakeholders, bringing the latest insights on forests and people to global decision making. This is an alarming situation and needs to be stalled and then reversed, if possible (Wildlife Pakistan). In a contrast with Pakistani officials, international researches and statistics shows a rapid rate of increasing in deforestation have is 1.68% annually. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Bogor Barat, Bogor 16115, Jawa Barat, Indonesia Telephone: 62-251-8622-622 Fax: 62-251-8622-100, Lima, Peru Nairobi, Kenya Yaounde, Cameroon Bonn, Germany, 2020 Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) | CIFOR is a CGIAR Research Center, CIFOR privacy policy      Terms of use, Transforming REDD+ and Payment for Forest Environmental Services in Vietnam, Global mega-trends impact forest communities, scientists find, Signing of agreement for restoring Asian drylands: Landscape Partnership for Asia, Understanding how social, economic and political changes affect tropical deforestation. 1.0 Introduction. The following is the established format for referencing this article: Lima, M., M. Skutsch, and G. de Medeiros Costa 2011. For the analysis of resource dependence, information was collected on resource income (RI) as the dependent variable and the independent variables included income from other sources or non-resource income (NRI) and livestock numbers (LS), given their potential impact on resource degradation. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Social impacts of deforestation: (4) 1) Improved quality of life 2) Livelihoods destroyed 3) Native tribes 4) Conflict. adverse effects o f deforestation are alarming and . The conventional view of deforestation is that rural people overexploits forests for local consumptive use and also the timber and woods traders using all possible ways to smuggle woods. Effects of deforestation, Social, economic and environmental implications of deforestation (no rating) 0 customer reviews. Positives and Negatives of deforestation. Deforestation contributes in the lacking of Biodiversity by affecting the Wild Life in forests. Conversion of forests – from South America's tropical forests to Russia’s temperate forests – to meet worldwide demand for consumer products is leading to deforestation and a range of ecological and social impacts. The literature analyzes the linkage between poverty and deforestation in Swat valley, KPK. There are several consequences of deforestation: 1. How can deforestation destroy livelihoods? SO245 Social Impact of Technology 2 Introduction Deforestation is increasing as a serious global concern. My research at CIFOR focused mainly on how more general social, economic, and political changes affected tropical deforestation. A lot of woods which is fallen or green from the valley forest has been taken by the outsiders or the contractors using some informal permits which is called chits and the officers of the government department has given incentives from this systems by receiving payments. 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