(C) The vertebral arch is ventral to the vertebral body (D) The femur is superior to the fibula. Anatomical … Several recent studies confirm that incorrect anatomical reduction is the strong predictor for failure as well as inappropriate position of the implant in relation to the proximal humerus. Fractures of the humerus are relatively common and can occur at any location on the humerus. It is sometimes referred to as the bicipital groove. The lateral part forms the medial margin of the intertubercular sulcus. Here, the proximal extremity ends and continues as the shaft of the humerus. The medial lip serves as the attachment site for the teres major muscle. The trochlea has a surface shaped like a pulley and covers the anterior, posterior and inferior surfaces of the medial condyle of the humerus. It articulates with both the ulna and radius and consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, which are separated by a faint groove. Dimitrios Mytilinaios MD, PhD (B) The radius is medial to the ulna. Movement of the humerus is essential to all of the varied activities of the arm, such as throwing, lifting, and writing. Bone resection was performed on the distal end of the humerus using navigation and on the proximal end of the ulna via freehand surgery. The upper extremity consists of a rounded head, a narrow neck, and two short processes (tubercles, sometimes called tuberosities.) The bone fragments usually unite easily as the humerus has a well-developed periosteum and is surrounded by muscles. Ambiguities arise concerning to the anatomic position of the implants and the resulting mechanic performance. The palms are facing forward with the fingers extended, and the thumbs are pointing away from the body. All of these parts have important anatomical landmarks. Lateral to the trochlea is the capitulum, which is a rounded and convex projection on the distal end of the humerus. The nature of the elbow joint enables the movements that are limited to the arm and forearm, and cannot be performed within the other parts of the body, such as supination and pronation. It consists of a proximal end, a shaft and a distal end, all which contain important anatomical landmarks. Pearl 1: fine tuning of plate position If the first screw is inserted only loosely in the center of the elongated hole, fine-tuning of the plate position is still possible. It is also known as the bicipital groove. It articulates with the ulna at the trochlear notch. The humerus has two large knobs at the top of the bone, called the greater and lesser tubercles, which join the scapula in order to provide movement along with stability. The long tendon of the biceps brachii and a branch of the ascending circumflex humeral artery lie within the intertubercular sulcus. Ventricles, meninges and blood vessels of the brain, Head, anatomical neck, greater tubercle, lesser tubercle, Impact, avulsion, transverse, spiral, intercondylar. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. It consists of three borders known as the anterior, lateral and medial borders. It is a common fracture site. vet-Anatomy vet-Anatomy the interactive atlas of veterinary anatomy. The feet are spaced slightly apart with the toes pointing forward. The radial nerve runs posteriorly around the middle third of the humeral shaft in the spiral groove. Material and methods We performed an anatomical study of 22 cadaveric shoulders to find out the relationship between the normal anatomical position of the humeral head and tears of the rotator cuff. The most common cause of this fracture in these age groups is a fall onto the acromion of the shoulder. There is a deep groove separating the two tubercles, which is called the intertubercular sulcus. The long head of biceps runs between the tuberosities in the bicipital groove, and the surgical neck is just below the greater and lesser tuberosities. crest of greater tubercle), while the teres major tendon attaches on to the medial lip. It is marked by an impression where seven superficial muscles of the lateral and posterior compartments of the upper limb, which include the following muscles: The olecranon fossa is a deep depression on the posterior surface of the distal end, superior to the trochlea. This neck area is the most commonly fractured part of the humerus due to its width. A … The distal end or extremity of the humerus has both articular and non-articular parts. All rights reserved. In this study, anatomical plasty or bone resection was performed to restore anatomical morphology in 10 cases of osteoarthritis of the elbow and deformity of the distal end of the humerus. The non-articular part consists of the medial and lateral epicondyles as well as the olecranon fossa, coronoid fossa and radial fossae. In the anatomical position, the head faces in a medial, superior, and posterior direction, where it articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Charlotte O'Leary BSc, MBChB It extends from your shoulder to your elbow, where it joins with the ulna and radius bones of your forearm. The head is a hemispheroidal shape, with hyaline cartilage covering its smooth articular surface. From superior to inferior, the muscles that attach at these impressions are the: Remember the muscles attaching to the greater tubercle of the humerus using the following mnemonic! The deltoid muscle covers the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle, resulting in the normal rounded shape of the shoulder. It is located superomedially to the medial condyle. The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm. (E) The phalanges of the foot are cranial to the metatarsals. The lateral border begins just distal to the greater tubercle of the humerus. – During flexion of the elbow, the coronoid process of the ulna lodges into the coronoid fossa. A direct blow to the arm can result in a transverse fracture of the humeral shaft. Test your knowledge with our bone quizzes and labeled diagrams. The lesser tuberosity (tubercle) is placed on the anterior aspect of the bone immediately beyond the anatomical neck, and shows a smooth, muscular impression on its upper part. The anatomical neck is a slight narrowing below the articular surface of the head. In elbow extension, the tip of the ulnar olecranon process lodges into this fossa. The humerus is the long bone of your upper arm. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” It is in close proximity to the axillary nerve and the posterior circumflex humeral artery. Copyright © The articular part is a modified condyle, which consists of a medial trochlea and a lateral capitulum, separated by a faint groove. The shaft or body is the middle part of the humerus, and it gives attachment to several muscles. The posterior surface is bounded by the medial and lateral borders and is covered mostly by the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle. The projection demonstrates the humerus in its natural anatomical position allowing for adequate radiographic examination of the entire humerus and its respected articulations. The lesser tubercle is located anterior to the anatomical neck and has a smooth, palpable muscular impression. The medial epicondyle is a blunt projection that forms the end of the medial border of the humerus. In extension, the inferior surface is in contact with the radius but in the flexed position the radial head slides towards the anterior aspect of the humerus. The aim of this biomechanical study was to compare the performance of different anatomical plate configurations for fixation of comminuted distal humerus fractures within one system. The lesser tubercle of the humerus gives attachment to the subscapularis muscle. It connects the scapula and the lower arm (consisting of the radius and ulna), and consists of three sections. The proximal end of the humerus consists of a head, an anatomical neck and the greater and lesser tubercles. Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. The middle portion of the lateral border is adjacent to the rough V shaped area referred to as the deltoid tubercle/tuberosity. A lateral lip and a medial lip form the intertubercular sulcus. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper extremity that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.. Also, the humerus has distal articulations with the radius and ulna at the elbow joint. Anatomy Overview The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that sits between the shoulder and the elbow, and the top part of it is referred to as the proximal humerus. Multiple vascular foramina also mark the lateral aspect of the greater tubercle. For questions regarding business inquiries. The position of the humeral head was noted in relation to the acromion. Register now Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. The anteromedial surface is located between the anterior and medial borders of the shaft/body, beginning proximally at the floor of the intertubercular sulcus. Also, the transverse ligament of the shoulder attaches here. The anatomical neck separates the greater and lesser tuberosities from the humeral head. Many powerful muscles that manipulate the upper arm at the shoulder and the forearm at the elbow are anchored to the humerus. Upon elbow flexion, the coronoid process of the ulna lodges into this fossa. Description. Choose from 500 different sets of anatomy humerus flashcards on Quizlet. Another important factor is the correct reconstruction of anatomic position of the greater and the lesser tubercle in relation to the insertion of rotator cuff muscles into the humeral head. It is most commonly seen in the middle-aged and in the elderly. The lateral border of the humerus ends at the lateral epicondyle. Kenhub. However, it can also be obtained in a supine position. There is an impression on the lateral and anterior surfaces where the seven muscles of the superficial group of the posterior compartment of the forearm originate. It consists of three smooth and flat impressions at the posterosuperior aspect for the attachment of muscles. From superior to inferior, the muscles that attach at these impressions are three of the rotator cuff muscles: The lateral aspect of the greater tubercle is covered by the deltoid muscle, which gives the shoulder its usual rounded shape. It has a smooth proximal surface and is largely covered by the deltoid muscle. The radial groove is a shallow groove that interrupts the medial border in its medial third. However, when the elbow is flexed the posterior part is no longer in contact, as the trochlear notch slides towards the anterior aspect of the humerus. The anterior border begins at the greater tubercle and runs downward almost to the end of the bone. This is where the proximal end of the humerus joins with the long shaft. Another important landmark is the anatomical neck, a slightly more narrow area just below the tubercles but above the shaft, which is the long part of the bone. The joint capsule of the shoulder joint attaches here. Unfortunately, frac… Located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus is an expanded bony area called the greater tubercle. Read more. An easy way to remember the relation of latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and teres major muscles as they insert in the intertubercular sulcus is to use the following mnemonic! The humerus articulates with the scapula proximally at the glenohumeral joint so it participates in the movements of the shoulder. The anatomic neck of the humerus refers to the location of the physeal plate during development. This results in separation of one or both of the condyles from the shaft of the humerus. The shaft also contains three surfaces referred to as the anterolateral, anteromedial and posterior surfaces. Common and can occur due to the side trochlea are in contact with scapula! Unlike the trochlea, but on the elbow joint very easily using this mnemonic hollow... 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